dermatologist

A derm’s guide: Understanding melasma in 2019

Our favourite dermatologist Dr. Lev Naidoo helps us understand what we need to know about melasma hyperpigmentation. She discusses what it is, how to recognise it, the latest research, and how to treat it.

What is Melasma?

Melasma – sometimes called chloasma or the mask of pregnancy – is a common, acquired disorder of increased pigmentation that affects many people worldwide.

How does Melasma appear?

Typical signs of melasma are light to dark brown patches of increased pigmentation distributed evenly on the face, with irregular borders. It is usually found over the cheeks and/or forehead, bridge of nose, chin and jaw areas. One of the telltale signs of this condition is that it almost always becomes worse during summer.

In past medical studies, melasma was defined as either epidermal (superficial), dermal (in the deeper layers of the skin), or mixed (both in the epidermis and the dermis), based on how the melanin pigment was deposited in the skin. More recent studies show that all melasma is mixed.

Melasma appearance

Who gets Melasma?

Melasma affects most people twenties and thirties. It is seen earlier in lighter skin types than in dark skins, and melasma in men is more common as once believed.

What are the risk factors for Melasma?

Whether you will develop melasma or not depends on factors such long-term exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun and light sources, so people who tan or spend a lot of time outdoors playing sport are more likely to develop it. Female hormone stimulation (see below) affects it too, and then there’s genetic predisposition – did your mother and aunts have it?

Some people also report that melasma develops or worsens after stressful events that have generated anxiety. The reason for this is that stress and depression raise levels of cortisol. This stimulates certain hormones that cause an increase in melanin production.

What causes Melasma?

It’s complicated!

Our understanding of melasma has evolved.  We used to think of it as a “simple” disturbance of melanocytes, the cells that produce melanin pigment. However, recent analysis revealed almost 300 genes are significantly different, when comparing melasma areas to surrounding healthy skin. This affects the pigment-producing melanocytes and also the dermis. It also, unfortunately, makes the treatment of melasma complicated and ongoing – a lifelong commitment.

It’s photoageing

Recent data also backs the theory that melasma is partly a photoageing disorder – UV damage-induced premature skin ageing.

It’s UV damage

Long-term UV exposure also raises the levels of matrix metalloproteinases in the skin, which degrade collagen. Collagen is an important component of the membrane separating the epidermis from the dermis. When this membrane is degraded, melanocytes and melanin are able to enter into the dermis. This deeper deposit of melanin makes treatment more challenging.

Our oil glands play a part

Oil-producing sebaceous cells also contribute to melasma. This may be why we find melasma in the centre of the face, where sebaceous glands are more densely distributed.

Of course, free radicals have to be involved

People with melasma have higher levels of oxidative stress (an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants), compared to people without melasma. This leads us to think there may be a connection between free radical injury and melasma.

And then we have our hormones, but all is not what it seems…

For a long time, we believed our female hormones played a part in melasma. A recent study of melasma patients in nine countries, however, minimises the impact of female hormones. It showed that the onset of melasma occurrs in only 20% of cases per pregnancy. Almost 10% of melasma start after menopause. The same study also showed that there wasn’t a significant slowing of melasma once the trialists stopped using contraceptive pills.

It seems cortisol hormones may be at least partly responsible.

Recent research shows the importance of the role of cortisol hormones in melasma. As explained above, the hypothalamus controls the release of melanin-stimulating cortisol, which have a direct effect on pigmentation. The hypothalamus’s role in the limbic system that governs our emotions supports the theory that emotions and stress reactions can cause increased pigmentation in certain people.

How do you treat Melasma?

1. Start developing sun protection habits.

Limit time spent outdoors when sun is at its peak.

Try to use protective clothing and sunhats with a wide brim.

Use sunscreen every day. And reapply every two hours if you are spending long periods of time outdoors or in water.

Current studies show that physical blocker sunscreens (e.g., sunscreens with titanium dioxide or zinc oxide), or combination chemical-filter and physical blocker sunscreens are more effective than chemical filter sunscreens alone in protecting against visible light. These increase the sunscreen’s photoprotective capacity which, in turn, increases the success of melasma treatment.

The sunscreen I often recommend for my melasma patients is Bioderma’s Photoderm M, which combines both chemical and physical blockers. It is fragrance-free, doesn’t block pores and is excellently tolerated even by sensitive skin-types. Its very high UVA/UVB protection has titanium dioxide to protect against visible light. It also contains glabridin, which inhibits stimulation of melanin production.

2. Use a pigmentation-correction treatment

I find products with a combination of pigment-inhibiting ingredients offer the most benefit. It is also important that it offers barrier repair to address the photoageing component of melasma. Addition of an antioxidant further strengthens the capacity for correction.

Products I recommend for my melasma patients include:

Esthederm’s Esthe White Brightening Youth Anti-Dark Spots Serum: A combination of licorice root extract inhibits melanin production, neoglucosamine further inhibits melanin synthesis and is a building block for hyaluronic acid, helping with skin repair. The antioxidants vitamin C, E and superoxide dismutase decrease free radicals, regulate melanocyte activity and decreases inflammation in the skin. Apply this product twice daily to areas with increased pigmentation.

Noreva’s Iklen Mélano Expert Anti-Brown Spot Concentrate contains rucinol and Sophora-α, which inhibit melanin synthesis, centaureidine, which inhibits the migration of melanin to the keratinocytes, as well as Vitamin C.

Le Beauty Club comment: Suitable for use while pregnant and breastfeeding.

Bioderma’s new Pigmentbio Night Renewer – this powerhouse product contains a combination of niacinamide (the biologically active form of vitamin B3 which decreases the transfer of melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes and enhances barrier repair), azelaic acid inhibits tyrosinase and decreases inflammation. It also contains other ingredients effective in treating pigmentation – licorice root extract, vitamin C. Vitamin E and vitamin PP strengthen the skin’s barrier. Apply this product in the evening to areas of pigmentation.

3. Additional support

Beyond anti-pigmentation skin care, you can also improve pigmentation problems with chemical peels, microdermabrasion and micro-needling.

NEED TO KNOW!

It is very important to take skin type and sensitivity into account to decrease trauma or inflammation of the skin.  This makes it essential to only consider these options under the care of your treating doctor. Trauma and inflammation can, unfortunately, lead to worsening of pigmentation problems, especially in patients with darker skin types.

So, remember…

Always sun protect, improve skin barrier quality, gradually integrate active ingredients with pigment-lifting properties into your skin care regime. And always be gentle with your skin.

Here’s wishing you happy skin days,

Dr. Lev
XOXO
Dr

 

 

Your Mustela essentials to care for your baby’s skin in winter

Your baby’s skin is very delicate. Until the age of 2, it is immature and needs extra-special care especially in winter, when all skin tends to suffer. Mustela has the ideal solutions to keep your baby’s skin healthy and happy through the chilly season

Ever wondered why cold, dry winter air can cause eczema flare-ups and other skin irritations? The reason: the air around us is generally drier in winter than it is in summer (indoors heating is an aggravator, and anyone living through a Gauteng winter knows this all too well). This causes the skin to dry out. Then, the fluctuation in temperature between outside and inside as we move in and out of the house causes our skin to dry out even further. Baby’s skin is immature and can’t keep itself hydrated as well as normal, more mature skin, so it needs help – MOISTURE, PROTECTION AND SOOTHING – with the right skin care to stay healthy, especially in babies. And with different skin types, this need is even more critical.

1. Identify baby’s skin type

The first step in treating your baby’s skin is identifying their skin type and condition, then you can make sure you use the right skin care to keep it moisturised and happy.

If you’re blessed with a baby who has normal skin, then continuing your regular routine with a bit of additional moisturisation is all you need in winter.

When your baby’s skin show signs of not being ‘normal’, it’s not quite that simple to diagnose… Atopic (eczema-prone) skin can be dry and sensitive, and most sensitive skin is dry, but it doesn’t mean that all dry skin is sensitive! It can be very confusing and frustrating for parents to know which steps to take.

When in doubt, especially if your baby is showing signs of skin irritation or allergy, consult your paediatrician or dermatologist for a proper diagnosis.

Here are some basic symptoms to look out for in figuring out what your baby’s skin needs.

If you suspect your baby has eczema or sensitive skin, get a medical confirmation as soon as possible.

Dry skin lacks oil and is a genetic trait that is likely to last throughout your baby’s life. Dry skin looks dry and rough, and can be accompanied by slight itching and flaking. It is easily treatable with the use of effective nourishing products.
Get great information about dry skin from Mustela here.

Sensitive and very sensitive skin is skin that reacts to certain ingredients at certain times, and can be caused by genetic or allergic conditions. From birth, the skin of some babies may be more sensitive than others, and overreacts – seen as reddening – to stresses that are usually well tolerated by normal skin. Things like environmental factors (temperature changes, sweating, wind), chemical stresses (dyes, detergents, hard water) or even rubbing from their nappy or clothing can set them off. The baby may also feel discomfort (tingling and tightness sensations).
One in three children have very sensitive skin, according to dermatologists. Identifying products, ingredients and irritants that cause the reaction is the key to managing this type of skin. Luckily, if you remove the sensitivity trigger and use the right soothing products, the skin will calm down.
Find out more about this skin type here

Atopic dermatitis (atopic eczema) is a serious skin condition that can occur at any age, but is very common in babies and young children, usually manifesting by three months and before the age of 2.
If one parent has eczema, the changes are that that baby will have about 35% chance of having eczema. If both parents have it, the risk rises to between 50 and 80%.

It is basically a skin barrier disorder that causes inflammation of the skin, making it swell, crack and itch. Unfortunately, even if you remove the inflammation trigger, the skin will continue to overreact.
Eczema is easy to identify because it manifests in the form of red, irritated patches of skin, most often in high movement areas of the body like the bend of the elbows, behind knees, on eyelids and along wrists. The risk of infection is high due to the urge to scratch the irritated areas, so this must be avoided as much as possible. Many cases of eczema persist into adulthood, and sufferers often experience flare-ups in colder weather.
Mustela’s excellent information on atopic skin is very useful. Read more here.

2. Start your baby’s skin care programme

Mustela is Europe’s No. 1 brand, dedicated to healing and protecting your baby’s skin. They have a range of products to treat each condition as quickly and effectively as possible, harnessing and combining the very best of nature and technology.

If your baby has ATOPIC ECZEMA…

it is vital to restore the skin’s barrier as quickly as possible. The Mustela Stelatopia range is clinically proven to soothe and repair atopic-prone skin, and has been tested under dermatological and paediatric control.

Mustela Stelatopia Cleansing Cream is the best cleansing option for highly stressed skin. It has been designed to form a soft foam when it comes into contact with the skin, gently cleansing without the need for rubbing, which can further irritate the skin. Once rinsed off, the plant-rich formula leaves the skin soothed, cleansed and hydrated.

If your baby is suffering with a flare-up, soothe the skin with an emollient cream like Mustela Stelatopia Emollient Cream. The formula contains innovative natural-origin ingredients to replenish the skin’s lipid barrier to repair and protect the skin from further irritation.

Watch Mustela’s video which gives great tips on caring for your eczema-prone baby’s skin

What you can do to reduce eczema flare-ups

• You can help to reduce flare-ups by avoiding extreme temperature fluctuations. Cover up as much of your baby’s skin as you can when going outside and limit their exposure to air conditioning to keep the skin’s temperature as steady as possible.
• HOWEVER, sweating can aggravate your baby’s skin, causing itching. Make sure you dress your child in layers, with a soft vest underneath, so you can remove the warm coat indoors to prevent overheating and sweating.
• Dry air also contributes to dry skin, outside as well as inside, so use a humidifier in a heated room to keep the air moist.
• Corticosteroid medication is used to treat the inflammatory response when the baby has a flare-up. It doesn’t, however, tackle the actual cause of atopic skin, which is disregulated skin cells. To prevent flare-ups, it’s important to treat the skin with the correct, dermatologically formulated and tested skin care which provides the skin with barrier lipids and builds a stronger barrier to prevent dehydration, as well as soothing inflammation. Mustela Stelatopia uses Sunflower Oil distillate which not only provides barrier lipids, it is also anti-inflammatory and it triggers your own skin cells to produce more lipids.

If your baby has DRY SKIN…

they need Mustela Nourishing range. It has been designed to deliver hydration, beeswax and plant oils to dry skin, keeping it supple and healthy.

To cleanse dry skin, it is important to use gentle, non-drying formulas that keep the skin’s barrier intact. The Nourishing range offers a Cleansing Milk, as well as a nourishing, lipid-enriched Gentle Soap Bar with Cold Cream.

Facial dry patches are common in babies, and the Nourishing Cream with Cold Cream treats and protects this delicate skin. The new formula contains 95% from natural origin ingredients; all designed to nourish, soothe and hydrate the skin without leaving any sticky or greasy residue.

If your baby has SENSITIVE SKIN…

the best option is the Mustela Very Sensitive Skin Soothing range. This range contains soothing actives to calm any irritation and reduce tingling sensations associated with sensitive skin reactions

Cleansers comprise Very Sensitive Skin Cleansing Gel and Very Sensitive No-Rinse Cleansing Water – great for on the go clean-ups.

Exclusive to Le Beauty Club! The Very Sensitive Skin Soothing Moisturising Cream is now here. It is ideal for use on the face and provides immediate, long-lasting relief from skin discomfort.

 

Nappy time!

Instead of abrasive wipes, cleaning your baby’s bottom area with a gentle cream cleanser will reduce the risk of irritation and help to keep the area free of bacteria. Mustela Liniment Diaper Change Cleanser contains 99% ingredients of natural origin, including omega-rich extra virgin olive oil, to hydrate and nourish as it cleanses super-gently.

This delicate area can easily be irritated and is prone to flare-ups due to nappy friction and dampness. Mustela 123 Vitamin Barrier Cream, containing 98% natural-origin ingredients, has been developed to target irritation and inflammation at its source. It soothes the skin underneath, and protects it from external irritants, literally forming a protective barrier.

And nap time…

Babies are often affected by severe temperature changes, and stuffy noses can cause disrupted sleep patterns for everyone. Mustela Soothing Chest Rub will not only relax your baby for a good night’s sleep, it also soothes and hydrates any irritated skin as the gentle pine scent helps them breathe more easily.

Enjoy your winter!

XOXO

Dr Levashni Naidoo: Treating pigmentation in summer

I have a complicated relationship with summer: I love feeling the warmth of the sun on my skin, but I don’t love the unevenness with which it marks my complexion.

With summer’s seasonal return, I’ve learned that the sun usually kisses and tells. This can be concerning to those affected by pigmentation problems, so let us look at common factors that may worsen your excess pigmentation and follow our tips to help you with this challenging condition.

Why treat pigmentation?

I’ve treated many patients with pigmentary disturbance. I’ve seen their frustration at having to cover up a condition they wish they could rather spend time improving medically. I’ve witnessed the anxiety they face at the idea of going make-up free. I’ve come to understand the difficulties they face in terms of lowered self-esteem and how self-conscious they feel following the onset of unexpected pigmentary alterations.

Pigmentary disturbance remains a challenging condition to treat. There are over 152 genes that regulate pigment production! This has an impact on how individuals respond to topical treatments, and finding the correct treatment is a process.  It is important to understand that there is no quick fix. I do, however, believe that if dermatologists work closely with our patients, we may embark on a pathway to improvement.

The skin complexion we inherit is influenced by

External Factors

Sunny Days

South Africa is amongst the sunniest countries in the world and sun-induced pigmentation ranks first as both cause and aggravator of many pigmentary disturbances. We all understand that ultraviolet UVA and UVB rays cause photoaging (sun-induced ageing) and increased pigment production. But we also realise now that the visible light spectrum and infrared radiation play a significant role in contributing to skin damage and uneven skin tone through generation of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) within the skin.

Sun exposure may lead to a general increase in pigmentation where skin is exposed, as well as a darkening of pre-existing freckles and the appearance of sun spots.

Heat Waves and Close Shaves

Heat itself from any external source or trauma to the skin may stimulate increased activity of melanocytes (pigment-producing cells in the skin.)

Internal Factors

Heavy-handed hormones

Melasma (hormonal hyperpigmentation) is a common form of pigmentary disturbance. It frequently occurs during pregnancy or when a susceptible person starts using a combined oral contraceptive pill. The increase in oestrogen concentration stimulates melanocyte activity, increasing the production of melanin. This increased pigmentation is commonly found on cheekbones, forehead, nose and occasionally around the mouth.

The aftermath of inflammation

During the active phase of many inflammatory skin disorders – such as acne, eczema and lichen planus – inflammation in the skin may activate pigment production pathways. When the skin is healed, there may be an increase in pigmentation, called post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH).

Popping pills

Certain types of medication may lead to pigmentary disturbance. These include non-steroidal anti-inflammatories used for pain relief, the combined oral contraceptive pill, antihypertensive (blood pressure), antimalarial, antibiotic and anti-epileptic medications. Telltale signs that you may have drug-induced pigmentation include darkening of your nails and mucosa (lining of the mouth, etc.).

Should you treat pigmentation in summer? Yes!

Treatment of pigmentation has two arms:

One: use one or a combination of treatment agents that effectively decrease pigment production and,

Two: prevent further worsening of pigmentation from continued sun exposure.

The most important aspect of treating pigmentation over sun-exposed sites is to ensure that you protect vigilantly from the sun.

  • This includes avoiding peak-intensity sunlight hours between 10 am and 3pm outdoors.
  • When you’re outdoors, wear protective clothing in the form of sun hats, scarves and long sleeves,
  • Always remember to apply a broad-spectrum sunscreen with both UV, visible light and infrared radiation protection, such as Bioderma Photoderm range

 

What treatment should you use?

Here are your A, B, Cs for treatment of excess pigmentation in the summer months:

A

Always use sun-protection. A broad-spectrum sunscreen should be applied daily in appropriate quantities (a R5 coin amount for your face alone). Re-apply every couple of hours if you are spending time outdoors. Remember, no sunscreen lasts the entire day.

Always remove pigmentation-stimulating agents, such as exacerbating drugs. Speak to your doctor about changing medication, if possible.

B

Brightening agents

Dermatologists may use the following in-clinic treatments to reduce pigmentation:

Chemical peels containing alpha-hydroxy acids like glycolic acid. The strength of the peel will depend on what is clinically suitable for your skin type to minimise inflammation, especially in those with darker skin types. Peels should gently encourage exfoliation of the uppermost layer of the skin, lifting epidermal pigmentation and helping active brightening ingredients from skin care products to penetrate the skin.

Dermafrac is a newer treatment combining microdermabrasion, micro-needling, simultaneous deep tissue serum infusion, and light emitting diode (LED) therapy. In addition to stimulating skin rejuvenation, the procedure also helps with uneven skin tone and hyperpigmentation through delivery of select ingredients into the dermal layer to damp down pigment-producing pathways. This procedure is particularly recommended for those with darker skin types. where stimulation of inflammation through more aggressive treatments may actually worsen pre-existing pigmentary disturbances.

Laser therapy should only be carried out under the care of trained medical professionals. The selection of laser is dependent on the cause of the pigmentation, with careful consideration given to the skin type of the patient.

C

Care at home

In cases of chronic hyperpigmentation, a more intense acute phase of therapy is often followed by a tailored, safe long-term management programme. Treatment in the acute phase may include ingredients like hydroquinone that are prescribed for a short period under supervision of your dermatologist.

Due to side-effects with continued hydroquinone use, a switch to a non-hydroquinone- based ingredient or combination of ingredients is advised.

Skin brightening agents work on various different pigment activities:

  • they may block the formation of melanin,
  • inhibit the transfer of melanin from the melanocyte to other skin cells,
  • suppress melanocyte activity
  • limit inflammation and
  • enhance skin cell turnover

Caution!

Systemic skin-lightening agents have become increasingly popular in recent years. Fernbloc has proven safety and efficacy, but we strongly advise against using other agents such as intravenous glutathione because of severe side-effects, which include renal and liver impairment as well as documented life-threatening adverse drug reactions including Steven Johnson Syndrome.

My recommendations for home care treatment of pigmentation and sun protection

  1. Essential: Sunscreen with a broad- spectrum UVA and UVB cover, as well as cover for visible light. I recommend Bioderma’s Photoderm M  if you have been diagnosed with hormonal melasma as it effectively extends cover to this visible spectrum range. Sun protection is especially important if you have had in-clinic treatments and are using active ingredients such as hydroquinone, retinol, AHA, etc.
  1. Noreva Trio White depigmenting range  is a combination of reductol (a phytonutrient that protects keratinocytes), as well as vitamin C and arbutane that limit melanin production
  2. Esthederm’s Esthewhite range: a combination of murine exopolysaccharise that enhances skin cell turnover, glucosamine and glabridine that regulate melanin production, and vitamin C with added anti-oxidant benefit.
  3. Topical retinoid at night: For first-time retinoid (vitamin A) users, I start with Esthederm’s Intense Retinol Serum – a 0.3% retinol preparation combined with papyrus and apricot oils rich in omega 3, 6 and 9, which improve tolerance of the retinoid. As you develop tolerance, and should added strength be required, I upscale treatment to a prescription-grade retinoid.

Find out more about the Esthederm range here.

Here’s wishing you happy summer days,      

Lev

Dermatologist Dr Levashni Naidoo

 

XOXO

 

 

Meet Dr. Levashni Naidoo

 

Our resident dermatologist, Dr. Levashni Naidoo is under the spotlight this month. We get her take on skin care and beauty…

 

Why did you become a dermatologist?

As a teenager, I had quite severe nodulocystic acne, which made me feel incredibly self-conscious. As the condition progressed, I became increasingly reserved. When I looked in the mirror I couldn’t see beyond the blemishes, and I thought this was what others I encountered focused on.

I was fortunate to have been treated by an incredibly gentle, understanding dermatologist who prescribed a course of medication that quietened down my acne activity and prevented me from developing any permanent scarring. I cannot describe how the improvement in my skin helped my self- esteem.

A diagnosis of a skin condition differs from diagnoses in other medical disciplines. It is often a diagnosis a person wears for the world to see. I’m sensitive to this – I understand it from my own experience.  One of my greatest blessings is being in a position to help others as I was once helped. I love seeing my patients return looking and feeling more comfortable in their skin. What I love most of all is hearing their stories – how the improvement in their condition helps return their self-confidence and how this filters into and helps improve other aspects of their lives, both personal and professional.

What are the most common skin issues you see in your practice?

Skin changes can occur at any time in a person’s life. As a dermatologist, care for our patients may start from their first day. I love treating little ones. Commonly, I see infants with cradle cap, heat rash or a nappy rash. Children usually have inflammatory skin conditions like atopic eczema or skin infections. Both teens and adults often come for consultation regarding their acne.

Given our sunny climate in South Africa, disturbances in pigmentation form a significant portion of my patients’ concerns. Increased pigmentation includes photoageing, melasma and drug-induced hyperpigmentation. Other sun-exacerbated disorders range from rosacea to the more concerning end of the spectrum including skin cancers.

I also see many patients with alopecia (hair loss). This is a condition I am particularly sensitive to as many of my family members have a history of early onset alopecia.

Le Beauty Club recommends:

For acne: Noreva Exfoliac (teen acne) and Actipur (adult acne and sensitive skin), Bioderma Sébium range. These comprehensive ranges have products to treat mild to moderately severe acne, including product that complements medical treatment

For cradle cap: Mustela Cradle Cap Cream + Mustela Foam Shampoo for Newborns 

First aid in a bottle (heat rash, insect bites, irritated folds): Bioderma Cicabio Crème (non-oozing wounds), Bioderma Cicabio Lotion (oozing wounds), Mustela Stelatria

Nappy rash prevention and repair: Mustela 123 Vitamin Barrier Cream

Atopic eczema: Bioderma Atoderm Intensive range, Noreva Xerodiane AP+ Relipidant Balm, Mustela Stelatopia range

 

 

Bioderma Sebium Foaming Gel, Noreva Xerodiane AP+ RElipidant, Noreva Actipur, Bioderma Cicabio Creme, Mustela Cradle Cap, Mustela 123 VBC

 

The best skin-care advice you’ve been given

Skin care is an important aspect of self-care, and self-care is an integral component of self-respect.

 

 The skin-care advice you give your family, friends and patients

Choose your skin care as you would your friends: quality over quantity, gentle rather than agitating, substance before packaging.

 

At what age should you start using a skin-care routine? 

It’s never too early and it’s never too late to start a good quality skin-care routine.

 

What should you use? 

Sunscreen, always sunscreen! This is a mantra many have openly and thankfully embraced. Sunscreen is just one side of the coin.

The flipside includes the use of antioxidants. Effective antioxidants for the skin include vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium. Antioxidant delivery to the skin is superior when applied on the skin as opposed to taking it orally. Antioxidants are essential ingredients that combat reactive oxidative species generated by environmental toxins like pollution, smoke and radiation. Additionally, vitamin C has added benefit of improving collagen synthesis and regulating melanin (pigment) production. Antioxidants are commonly prepared as serums. I prefer my antioxidant delivered in my moisturiser. I’m a firm believer in a minimal-step-easy- to-commit to skin-care routine.

Le Beauty Club recommends:

Our comprehensive selection of leading dermatologically created and EU-approved sunscreens for all skin concerns and all ages.

 

 

At what age should you start considering treatment against environmental damage?

We’re blessed with a beautiful sunny climate for most of the year in South Africa. A disregard for moderation in sun exposure can carry significant consequences, ranging from premature skin ageing to skin cancers.

Protection from excessive ultraviolet, visible and infrared light exposure should start from infancy – with appropriate protective clothing and keeping to shaded areas when you and your loved ones do have to be outdoors.

Sunscreen use in little ones used to be recommended from 6 months onwards. Currently the recommendation has been altered to allow for earlier use of sunscreens where protection may not be completely afforded by the use of protective clothing and where keeping in the shade is not possible.

Le Beauty Club recommends these child sunscreens: Mustela Very High Protection Sun Lotion SPF50+, Bioderma Photoderm Kid SPF 50+

 

Your skin is… a complete reflection of how you feel from day to day and the space you find yourself in. In embryology, we learn that the skin cells develop from the same space as the brain cells – the neuroectoderm – and so there exist these amazing channels between how we feel and the way our skin presents itself. This is an association that must be respected and appreciated when trying to care for the skin holistically. 

 

My make-up reflects how I feel or what I want to project. Most often I’m drawn to soft, neutral elegant shades, but there are days when I love the glamour of a powerful bright red lip.

 

XOXO

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